Songs for download as well as description. Should help if you know where you heard it, but no idea of anything else. Oh and the guess description is only here at the moment, a more accurate one will be written next play through.

Song Guessing before play through Accurate description
Aloha de Chocobo During the chocobo minigame, The chocobo area is found in a small group of trees on the world map
Assault of the White Dragons Not sure
Battle Strategy
Probably with the regent when they're planning some sort of battle.
Black Mage's Village Haha, who could forget, this is played when you are in the village.
Bran Bal, the Soulless Village  Shrug
Ceremony for the Gods Don't know, maybe something involiving Garnet/Dagger
Cid's Theme Maybe the regent's theme, not sure when it's played. Probably in his throne room at some point.
Conde Petie Hmm, can't remember this village. Maybe the village where vivi and quina get married
Decisive Action ~ Search for the Princess <(?.?>
Eiko's Theme Presumably when you enter Eiko's home, near the lifa tree.
Fairy Battle Hah, this is when fairies are found in random battles on the world map and requests coal or something.
Feel My Blade Seems like a song associated with blank or the thieves group.
Fossil Roo Probably plays when you're mining for things in and on the rollercoaste puzzle.
Freya's Theme Unknown
Hunter's Chance No idea whatsoever
Ipsen's Heritage Could be in the floating castle
Jesters of the Moon
When the two jesters show up near the fountain at night and plotting something.
Lifa Tree Just outside and inside the lifa tree. This starts just outside the enterance
Lindblum In Lindblum!
Memories Erased in the Storm No idea
One Danger Put Behind Us Not sure
Pandemonium, the Castle Frozen in Time Probably in the fourth disk
Prima Vista Band This is quite near the start. When Zidane is chasing Garnet, they both slam into the band when jumping off the ropes.
Quina's Theme
Qu's Marsh This is probably first heard when recieving tutorials from the mogs.
Rose of May
When beatrice hands Brahme some sort of artifact, however Beatrice is not thanked which pisses her off.
Ruins of Madain Sari Don't know
Salamander's Theme Shrug
Secret Library Daguerreo Possibly when Garnet/Dagger has a flashback and talks to one of her teachers. Probably wrong though.
Song of Memories No idea
Steiner's Theme Can be heard at the start of the game, when Steiner is running around looking for Garnet/Dagger.
Successive Battles Not sure
Terra Unknown
The Airship, Hildagaldy On the airship.
The Evil Mist's Rebirth Not sure
The Four Medallions ???????
The Place I'll Return to Someday No idea
The Skies of Alexandra ?
Ukulele de Chocobo Perhaps another chocabo forest.
Unfathomed Reminiscence Shrug
Vamo' alla Flamenco Shrug
Vivi's Theme Hear this when you begin playing as Vivi and are running around Alexandria.
Walls of the Sacred Beasts ?
You're Not Alone! Battle music of some sort